1997 San Diego Padres
Baseball Player Won-Loss Records
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1997 San Diego Padres*
Traditional Statistics and Splits (Retrosheet)
San Diego Padres - Franchise Page

(Regular Season)

(1997 National League)
Positional Average (Weighted Avg of Options): 0.500 (1-Year) (9-Year) (Long-Run)

Positional Averages for Pitchers (Wgted Avg of Options): "0.500 "vs. Different Values for Starting vs. Relief Pitchers: (Empirical) (Based on Pitchers who Do Both)

Basic Player Won-Lost Records
Position Players
(Sorted by pWORL)
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA pWORL eWins eLosses eWOPA eWORL
20.214.85.0
6.7
20.114.94.8
6.5
19.817.11.4
3.2
19.717.31.1
2.9
18.017.30.3
2.0
17.817.6-0.2
1.5
17.217.6-0.2
1.5
16.918.0-0.9
0.8
13.211.70.0
1.2
13.411.50.6
1.8
8.98.9-0.3
0.6
9.28.50.3
1.2
4.54.30.1
0.5
4.54.30.1
0.6
4.04.00.0
0.4
3.94.1-0.2
0.2
2.62.50.1
0.4
2.72.40.3
0.6
1.31.20.1
0.2
1.11.4-0.3
-0.1
11.712.2-1.0
0.2
12.311.60.2
1.4
1.11.00.1
0.2
1.01.1-0.1
0.0
0.91.0-0.0
0.1
0.81.0-0.2
-0.1
9.210.4-0.9
0.1
9.510.1-0.2
0.8
2.83.2-0.2
0.1
2.93.1-0.1
0.2
1.31.4-0.2
-0.1
1.41.20.1
0.2
6.16.6-0.7
-0.1
6.16.6-0.8
-0.1
0.60.7-0.2
-0.1
0.60.7-0.2
-0.1
0.40.6-0.2
-0.2
0.40.7-0.3
-0.2
0.20.5-0.2
-0.2
0.20.5-0.2
-0.2
0.30.6-0.3
-0.3
0.50.5-0.1
-0.0
0.10.5-0.4
-0.4
0.20.4-0.2
-0.2
0.20.7-0.4
-0.4
0.30.6-0.3
-0.2
15.018.6-3.0
-1.4
15.817.9-1.5
0.1
------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
SUB-TOTAL
159.8157.5-1.3
14.2
161.2156.02.0
17.5


Basic Player Won-Lost Records
Pitchers
(Sorted by pWORL)
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA pWORL eWins eLosses eWOPA eWORL
6.64.12.3
3.3
6.14.61.3
2.3
11.111.40.6
2.1
11.810.72.1
3.6
11.211.80.3
1.8
11.211.70.4
1.9
2.11.50.5
0.9
1.91.80.0
0.4
6.97.4-0.2
0.8
6.97.5-0.2
0.8
4.34.9-0.4
0.2
4.25.0-0.5
0.1
2.42.7-0.1
0.2
2.42.7-0.1
0.2
0.90.9-0.0
0.2
0.81.1-0.3
-0.1
6.47.5-1.0
0.1
6.47.5-1.0
0.1
2.83.2-0.5
0.0
2.93.0-0.2
0.4
0.30.3-0.0
0.0
0.30.3-0.0
0.0
10.312.9-1.6
-0.1
10.712.5-0.8
0.6
0.30.5-0.2
-0.1
0.30.4-0.1
-0.1
0.10.3-0.2
-0.2
0.20.2-0.1
-0.0
0.40.7-0.4
-0.3
0.40.6-0.2
-0.1
0.20.5-0.3
-0.3
0.30.4-0.2
-0.1
0.51.1-0.6
-0.4
0.70.9-0.2
-0.1
1.32.1-0.8
-0.5
1.42.0-0.5
-0.2
4.66.5-1.6
-0.9
4.76.4-1.3
-0.6
3.14.8-1.6
-1.0
3.64.3-0.5
0.1
2.65.2-2.4
-1.8
3.04.8-1.5
-1.0
------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
SUB-TOTAL
78.290.5-8.2
3.8
80.288.5-3.9
8.2


pWins pLosses pWOPA pWORL eWins eLosses eWOPA eWORL
TEAM TOTALS
238.0248.0-9.6
18.1
241.5244.5-1.9
25.7


Basic Player Won-Lost Records
Position Players
(Sorted by pWORL)
Batting Baserunning Pitching Fielding
Player eWins eLoss Win Pct. eWins eLoss Win Pct. eWins eLoss Win Pct. eWins eLoss Win Pct.
13.710.2
0.572
1.30.6
0.675
0.00.0
0.000
5.04.3
0.536
14.711.0
0.571
1.01.1
0.467
0.00.0
0.000
4.05.1
0.439
11.510.9
0.512
1.10.8
0.579
0.00.0
0.000
5.25.8
0.472
10.711.5
0.481
1.41.3
0.518
0.00.0
0.000
4.85.1
0.486
11.08.9
0.553
0.50.8
0.378
0.00.0
0.000
1.91.7
0.531
6.05.0
0.545
0.90.7
0.562
0.00.0
0.000
2.42.9
0.452
2.82.7
0.508
0.30.3
0.493
0.00.0
0.000
1.41.3
0.522
2.62.6
0.494
0.10.1
0.544
0.00.0
0.000
1.21.4
0.449
2.31.8
0.553
0.10.1
0.436
0.00.0
0.000
0.30.4
0.428
0.70.9
0.454
0.10.1
0.377
0.00.0
0.000
0.30.4
0.471
8.37.9
0.513
0.60.5
0.583
0.00.0
0.000
3.33.2
0.505
0.60.6
0.493
0.10.0
0.729
0.00.0
0.000
0.30.4
0.430
0.60.8
0.442
0.10.1
0.555
0.00.0
0.000
0.10.2
0.429
7.27.7
0.485
0.40.6
0.402
0.00.0
0.000
1.91.8
0.517
2.22.3
0.489
0.10.3
0.244
0.00.0
0.000
0.70.6
0.541
1.01.0
0.519
0.10.1
0.584
0.00.0
0.000
0.30.2
0.587
4.14.5
0.476
0.30.3
0.501
0.00.0
0.000
1.71.8
0.493
0.30.4
0.457
0.10.1
0.354
0.00.0
0.000
0.20.2
0.415
0.20.5
0.344
0.00.0
0.547
0.00.0
0.000
0.10.2
0.384
0.20.4
0.318
0.00.0
0.383
0.00.0
0.000
0.00.0
0.238
0.20.3
0.403
0.00.0
0.798
0.00.0
0.000
0.20.2
0.541
0.10.2
0.378
0.00.0
0.757
0.00.0
0.000
0.10.2
0.271
0.10.3
0.277
0.00.0
0.510
0.00.0
0.000
0.20.2
0.442
9.210.2
0.475
0.71.0
0.422
0.00.0
0.000
5.86.6
0.471
------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
SUB-TOTAL
110.5102.7
0.518
9.49.1
0.509
0.00.0
0.000
41.444.1
0.484


Basic Player Won-Lost Records
Pitchers
(Sorted by pWORL)
Batting Baserunning Pitching Fielding
Player eWins eLoss Win Pct. eWins eLoss Win Pct. eWins eLoss Win Pct. eWins eLoss Win Pct.
0.10.1
0.517
0.00.0
0.190
5.94.6
0.564
0.00.0
0.540
0.41.3
0.216
0.00.0
0.666
10.89.3
0.537
0.40.2
0.722
0.61.2
0.340
0.10.3
0.149
10.310.1
0.505
0.10.2
0.419
0.00.0
0.391
0.00.0
0.064
1.81.8
0.507
0.00.0
0.818
0.30.5
0.340
0.00.0
0.478
6.46.7
0.488
0.20.2
0.596
0.50.3
0.583
0.00.0
0.508
3.74.4
0.458
0.00.1
0.224
0.10.3
0.212
0.00.0
0.230
2.22.3
0.489
0.10.0
0.608
0.00.0
0.000
0.00.0
0.000
0.81.0
0.436
0.00.0
0.125
0.20.2
0.391
0.00.0
0.476
6.16.9
0.468
0.20.3
0.408
0.00.0
0.000
0.00.0
0.000
2.92.9
0.498
0.10.1
0.317
0.00.0
0.000
0.00.0
0.000
0.30.3
0.490
0.00.0
0.754
0.61.3
0.323
0.10.4
0.192
9.910.6
0.482
0.10.2
0.465
0.00.0
0.000
0.00.0
0.000
0.30.4
0.410
0.00.0
0.815
0.00.0
0.000
0.00.0
0.000
0.20.2
0.433
0.00.0
0.000
0.00.0
0.000
0.00.0
0.000
0.40.6
0.435
0.00.0
0.219
0.00.0
0.000
0.00.0
0.000
0.30.4
0.392
0.00.0
0.244
0.00.0
0.000
0.00.0
0.000
0.70.9
0.436
0.00.0
0.922
0.00.1
0.004
0.00.0
0.000
1.51.9
0.440
0.00.0
0.470
0.10.4
0.275
0.00.0
0.327
4.65.7
0.447
0.20.2
0.527
0.10.2
0.324
0.00.0
0.235
3.43.9
0.466
0.20.1
0.585
0.10.3
0.236
0.00.0
0.051
3.04.1
0.423
0.10.2
0.249
------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
SUB-TOTAL
3.06.3
0.322
0.30.9
0.245
75.679.1
0.488
1.81.8
0.497


Batting Baserunning Pitching Fielding
eWins eLoss Win Pct. eWins eLoss Win Pct. eWins eLoss Win Pct. eWins eLoss Win Pct.
TEAM TOTALS
113.5109.1
0.510
9.710.0
0.494
75.679.1
0.488
43.145.9
0.484


eWin, eLoss, eWOPA by Position
Catcher
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
John Flaherty9.510.1-0.3
Carlos A. Hernandez2.83.1-0.2
Mandy Romero0.80.9-0.1
Don Slaught0.00.1-0.1
------ ------ ------
TOTAL13.114.2-0.6
  
First Base
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Wally Joyner13.011.10.4
Archi Cianfrocco1.71.8-0.3
Derrek Lee1.31.00.1
Craig Shipley0.30.4-0.1
Mark Sweeney0.30.3-0.0
Scott Livingstone0.00.1-0.1
Carlos A. Hernandez0.00.00.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL16.614.7-0.1
  
Second Base
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Quilvio Veras16.917.8-0.7
Craig Shipley1.51.40.1
Archi Cianfrocco1.01.0-0.0
Terry Shumpert0.70.8-0.1
Jorge Velandia0.10.1-0.0
Scott Livingstone0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL20.221.1-0.7
  
Third Base
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Ken Caminiti19.815.04.4
Archi Cianfrocco3.13.3-0.3
George Arias0.50.5-0.0
Terry Shumpert0.30.10.2
Scott Livingstone0.10.3-0.2
Jorge Velandia0.00.1-0.1
Craig Shipley0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL23.719.24.0
  
Shortstop
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Chris Gomez15.817.8-1.4
Craig Shipley1.81.80.0
Jorge Velandia0.20.4-0.2
Archi Cianfrocco0.20.2-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL18.020.3-1.6
  
Left Field
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Greg Vaughn11.110.9-0.4
Rickey Henderson6.15.50.4
Chris C. Jones1.61.7-0.1
Mark Sweeney0.60.8-0.3
Trey Beamon0.70.7-0.0
Phil Plantier0.10.3-0.2
Ruben Rivera0.00.1-0.0
Terry Shumpert0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL20.319.9-0.5
  
Center Field
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Steve Finley17.317.2-0.3
Rickey Henderson1.71.9-0.2
Chris C. Jones1.31.3-0.1
Ruben Rivera0.10.10.0
Mark Sweeney0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL20.520.6-0.7
  
Right Field
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Tony Gwynn Sr.19.416.91.1
Rickey Henderson0.90.9-0.1
Chris C. Jones0.90.70.1
Mark Sweeney0.60.50.0
Ruben Rivera0.30.3-0.1
Trey Beamon0.10.2-0.1
Archi Cianfrocco0.10.00.0
Terry Shumpert0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL22.319.61.0
  
Designated Hitter
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Greg Vaughn0.50.30.2
Tony Gwynn Sr.0.20.2-0.1
Rickey Henderson0.10.10.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL0.80.60.1
  
Pinch Hitter
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Mark Sweeney1.10.80.4
Greg Vaughn0.60.50.2
Chris C. Jones0.60.50.1
Steve Finley0.50.30.2
Wally Joyner0.50.40.2
Craig Shipley0.20.5-0.2
Trey Beamon0.30.4-0.1
Scott Livingstone0.30.30.0
Rickey Henderson0.40.20.2
Don Slaught0.20.3-0.1
Derrek Lee0.10.2-0.1
Ken Caminiti0.00.2-0.2
Tony Gwynn Sr.0.20.10.2
Phil Plantier0.10.10.0
Ruben Rivera0.10.1-0.1
Archi Cianfrocco0.00.2-0.1
Quilvio Veras0.10.1-0.0
Mandy Romero0.00.1-0.1
John Flaherty0.10.00.0
Carlos A. Hernandez0.10.00.0
Terry Shumpert0.10.00.0
George Arias0.00.0-0.0
Fernando Valenzuela0.00.00.0
Jim Bruske0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL5.65.50.7
  
Pinch Runner
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Ruben Rivera0.00.2-0.1
Chris C. Jones0.00.00.0
Terry Shumpert0.10.00.0
Archi Cianfrocco0.00.0-0.0
Andy Ashby0.00.00.0
Will Cunnane0.00.0-0.0
Scott Livingstone0.00.0-0.0
Trey Beamon0.00.0-0.0
Quilvio Veras0.00.0-0.0
Pete J. Smith0.00.00.0
Craig Shipley0.00.0-0.0
George Arias0.00.0-0.0
Chris Gomez0.00.0-0.0
John Flaherty0.00.00.0
Jorge Velandia0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL0.10.2-0.1
  
Pitcher Offense
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Sterling Hitchcock0.71.6-0.0
Joey Hamilton0.81.50.1
Andy Ashby0.41.3-0.2
Pete J. Smith0.30.60.0
Will Cunnane0.50.40.3
Fernando Valenzuela0.10.4-0.1
Tim Worrell0.20.30.1
Danny Jackson0.10.3-0.1
Paul Menhart0.10.3-0.1
Sean Bergman0.10.20.0
Trevor Hoffman0.10.10.0
Heath Murray0.00.1-0.0
Jim Bruske0.00.00.0
Todd Erdos0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL3.37.20.0
  
Starting Pitching
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Andy Ashby11.29.51.9
Joey Hamilton10.210.20.2
Sterling Hitchcock9.810.6-0.6
Pete J. Smith5.55.30.3
Fernando Valenzuela4.85.8-1.0
Tim Worrell3.53.9-0.3
Danny Jackson2.94.2-1.3
Will Cunnane1.93.0-1.0
Paul Menhart2.32.4-0.1
Sean Bergman2.22.3-0.1
Heath Murray0.91.1-0.2
------ ------ ------
TOTAL55.358.4-2.2
  
Relief Pitching
Player eWins eLosses eWOPA
Trevor Hoffman6.04.61.2
Tim Worrell2.73.2-0.6
Doug Bochtler2.93.0-0.2
Jim Bruske1.81.80.0
Will Cunnane1.71.7-0.0
Sean Bergman1.41.7-0.3
Pete J. Smith1.21.5-0.3
Dario Veras0.81.1-0.3
Tim Scott0.70.9-0.2
Heath Murray0.60.8-0.2
Terry Burrows0.40.6-0.2
Rich Batchelor0.30.4-0.1
Joey Long0.30.4-0.2
Todd Erdos0.30.3-0.0
Sterling Hitchcock0.30.20.1
Marc Kroon0.20.2-0.1
Danny Jackson0.20.10.1
Joey Hamilton0.10.00.1
Paul Menhart0.0-0.00.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL22.022.5-1.2


Team eWins over Positional Average by Position
PC1B2B3BSSLFCFRFOth
1997 San Diego Padres-3.3-0.6-0.1-0.74.0-1.6-0.5-0.71.00.8


pWin, pLoss, pWOPA by Position
Catcher
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
John Flaherty9.110.4-0.9
Carlos A. Hernandez2.83.1-0.2
Mandy Romero0.90.80.2
Don Slaught0.00.1-0.1
------ ------ ------
TOTAL12.914.4-1.0
  
First Base
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Wally Joyner12.611.4-0.4
Archi Cianfrocco1.61.9-0.5
Derrek Lee1.31.10.0
Craig Shipley0.30.4-0.2
Mark Sweeney0.30.3-0.0
Scott Livingstone0.00.1-0.1
Carlos A. Hernandez0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL16.015.3-1.3
  
Second Base
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Quilvio Veras17.117.5-0.2
Craig Shipley1.81.20.6
Archi Cianfrocco1.10.80.3
Terry Shumpert0.70.9-0.1
Jorge Velandia0.10.1-0.0
Scott Livingstone0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL20.820.50.5
  
Third Base
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Ken Caminiti20.214.55.3
Archi Cianfrocco3.03.4-0.5
George Arias0.30.6-0.3
Terry Shumpert0.30.10.1
Scott Livingstone0.00.3-0.3
Jorge Velandia0.00.1-0.1
Craig Shipley0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL23.919.14.3
  
Shortstop
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Chris Gomez15.018.6-3.0
Craig Shipley1.71.9-0.1
Jorge Velandia0.10.5-0.3
Archi Cianfrocco0.20.20.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL17.121.2-3.4
  
Left Field
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Greg Vaughn10.511.5-1.6
Rickey Henderson6.05.60.1
Chris C. Jones1.71.60.1
Mark Sweeney0.41.1-0.8
Trey Beamon0.80.70.0
Phil Plantier0.00.3-0.3
Ruben Rivera0.00.1-0.1
Terry Shumpert0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL19.420.8-2.5
  
Center Field
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Steve Finley17.517.00.0
Rickey Henderson1.52.1-0.7
Chris C. Jones1.31.4-0.1
Ruben Rivera0.20.10.1
Mark Sweeney0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL20.420.6-0.8
  
Right Field
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Tony Gwynn Sr.19.416.91.2
Rickey Henderson1.00.90.1
Chris C. Jones0.90.70.2
Mark Sweeney0.70.40.3
Ruben Rivera0.20.3-0.1
Trey Beamon0.20.10.1
Archi Cianfrocco0.10.00.1
Terry Shumpert0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL22.619.31.7
  
Designated Hitter
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Greg Vaughn0.50.30.2
Tony Gwynn Sr.0.20.2-0.0
Rickey Henderson0.10.1-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL0.80.60.2
  
Pinch Hitter
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Mark Sweeney1.20.70.6
Greg Vaughn0.70.40.3
Chris C. Jones0.50.6-0.1
Steve Finley0.50.30.3
Wally Joyner0.60.30.4
Craig Shipley0.20.5-0.2
Trey Beamon0.30.4-0.1
Scott Livingstone0.30.20.1
Rickey Henderson0.40.10.3
Don Slaught0.20.3-0.1
Derrek Lee0.00.3-0.2
Ken Caminiti0.00.3-0.2
Tony Gwynn Sr.0.20.00.2
Phil Plantier0.10.1-0.1
Ruben Rivera0.00.2-0.1
Archi Cianfrocco0.00.2-0.1
Quilvio Veras0.10.10.0
Mandy Romero0.00.2-0.2
John Flaherty0.00.1-0.0
Carlos A. Hernandez0.00.1-0.0
Terry Shumpert0.10.00.1
George Arias0.00.0-0.0
Fernando Valenzuela0.00.00.0
Jim Bruske0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL5.65.50.8
  
Pinch Runner
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Ruben Rivera0.10.1-0.0
Chris C. Jones0.00.00.0
Terry Shumpert0.10.00.0
Archi Cianfrocco0.00.0-0.0
Andy Ashby0.00.00.0
Will Cunnane0.00.0-0.0
Scott Livingstone0.00.0-0.0
Trey Beamon0.00.0-0.0
Quilvio Veras0.00.00.0
Pete J. Smith0.00.00.0
Craig Shipley0.00.0-0.0
George Arias0.00.0-0.0
Chris Gomez0.00.0-0.0
John Flaherty0.00.0-0.0
Jorge Velandia0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL0.20.20.0
  
Pitcher Offense
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Sterling Hitchcock0.61.7-0.1
Joey Hamilton0.91.40.2
Andy Ashby0.41.4-0.2
Pete J. Smith0.40.50.1
Will Cunnane0.50.30.4
Fernando Valenzuela0.10.4-0.1
Tim Worrell0.20.30.1
Danny Jackson0.10.4-0.1
Paul Menhart0.10.30.0
Sean Bergman0.10.2-0.0
Trevor Hoffman0.10.10.0
Heath Murray0.00.1-0.0
Jim Bruske0.00.00.0
Todd Erdos0.00.0-0.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL3.57.00.4
  
Starting Pitching
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Andy Ashby10.710.00.8
Joey Hamilton10.210.30.0
Sterling Hitchcock9.510.9-1.2
Pete J. Smith5.25.6-0.3
Fernando Valenzuela4.56.1-1.5
Tim Worrell3.24.3-1.0
Danny Jackson2.44.7-2.2
Will Cunnane2.02.8-0.8
Paul Menhart2.22.4-0.2
Sean Bergman2.02.6-0.6
Heath Murray0.91.1-0.2
------ ------ ------
TOTAL52.860.8-7.1
  
Relief Pitching
Player pWins pLosses pWOPA
Trevor Hoffman6.54.12.2
Tim Worrell3.03.0-0.1
Doug Bochtler2.83.2-0.5
Jim Bruske2.11.50.5
Will Cunnane1.71.7-0.1
Sean Bergman1.02.0-1.0
Pete J. Smith1.31.3-0.1
Dario Veras0.90.9-0.0
Tim Scott0.51.1-0.6
Heath Murray0.40.9-0.5
Terry Burrows0.40.7-0.4
Rich Batchelor0.30.5-0.2
Joey Long0.20.5-0.3
Todd Erdos0.30.3-0.0
Sterling Hitchcock0.10.3-0.3
Marc Kroon0.10.3-0.2
Danny Jackson0.10.2-0.0
Joey Hamilton0.20.00.1
Paul Menhart0.00.00.0
------ ------ ------
TOTAL21.922.7-1.5


Team pWins over Positional Average by Position
PC1B2B3BSSLFCFRFOth
1997 San Diego Padres-8.2-1.0-1.30.54.3-3.4-2.5-0.81.71.0


*Player won-loss records are calculated using Retrosheet play-by-play data. For some seasons, Retrosheet does not have full play-by-play data for all games. In these cases, some games may be missing.
The number of Games shown here are the number of games for which Retrosheet play-by-play data exist and were used in these calculations.



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